Our Black News – Critical Thinking for the Advancement of Colored People
Wednesday August 12th 2020

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Minneapolis Homeless Advocates lose over $600,000 in Federal funding

By Guy Terrill Gambill  – Publisher of The Daily Desmadre and Guest Columnist 

Is there a “tick” in the city and counties progressive ideology? (photo: Lyme Disease and Ticks: What You Need To Know – Fair Use: www.glutathionepro.com)

Minneapolis, Minn. – (Editorial Facts)…How did Minneapolis Homeless Advocates lose over $600,000 in Federal funding through incompetence and inattention. Next time this crowd comes before the public complaining about Federal funding, bring this up:

Let’s start taking a look at specifics in expenditures which took place under one Federal funding stream during the course of the 10 Year Plan to End Homelessness in Hennepin County during the term of the plan 2006-2016. As a reminder, the net effect of the Plan at its terminus, as pointed out by a number of media outlets, was that over 300 more people were homeless in Hennpin County in 2016 than had been in 2006.

Let’s look at the Homelessness Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program (HPRP). Under this Federal program there was authorized 1.5 billion dollars for a three year period, 2010-2012. The amounts allocated for Minneapolis:

$5,520,920.00 Total funding authorization

$4,908,789.04 Total amount drawn, (83.5% of authorzed amount)

$612,119.94 Gap or projected gap in meeting 100% expenditure over three year program allocation period.

$294,814.19 Approximate monthly draw to meet 3-year 100% requirement.

As you have probably been able to figure out for yourselves, those responsible for administration and use of this three year Federal funding allocation failed to expend the amount allocated by over half million dollars during the stipulated three year period. What that means is that the City-County lost that amount of funding due to its failure to follow the stipulations for expenditures during the period.

Not like homeless people in Minneapolis could have used 612,119 for anything they needed or anything, right? So why did this happen? Don’t ask me, ask them…the people in charge of this mess, that is. Oh, wait, you can’t ask the Director of HHH I guess…she got promoted to head up the State’s efforts. You’ll have to ask the new director of HHH….who was one of the large shelter directors…you know, one of the guys who was in charge of administering the program under discussion. Cos when you’re a member of this cozy “Conspiracy of Dunces”, to quote Arthur Turovh Himmelman pissing away 600,000 in Federal funding isn’t cause for reprimand or questioning, it’s cause for promotion.

Please note that a significant percentage of other Metropolitan did manage to maximize Federal dollars. But not Minneapolis. My reference for the above, click here. 

Minnesota Super Bowl 52: Where is the Community Benefits Agreement?

By Don Allen, Publisher – The Independent Business News Network – September 30, 2017 12:49p

I first wanted to ask this question to the City of St. Paul in regards to the new soccer stadium that is already causing major gentrification issues in the Snelling/University neighborhoods. But hey, since the Super Bowl will come and go, let’s start with them. 

Minneapolis, Minn. – (Editorial Opinion) …First of all, this question is problematic for several reason, the first being I do not watch football, or any sports on television, one of the many great features my wife says I have. Secondly, when I ask questions about economic development in Minnesota’s minority-ethnic community, some folks ask me: “What have you done for the community?” It’s a great question and more often then not, my answer is: “I’ve stayed in my lane, asked the critical thinking questions and hoped the community activists, politicians and the self-appointed community leaders in my community (black community), at some point will pull it together and figure out something is wrong in Minnesota, and while some would say we are separate, we are definitely not equal.”

I guess I could have started by asking how many Blacks, Native Americans, Hispanic-Latinos, Asian and Immigrant Minnesotans sat on the the Minnesota Super Bowl committee, but that would have been a misdirect to the real questions. It’s not about the race or color of the people who make the decisions, its about the way they think and the process they use to make decisions. At this point, I feel as if everyone including the local politicians are caught up in the bright-lights of the Hollywood Syndrome; human issues take a back seat to fun, free tickets, events and smiles.

The question I ask has nothing to do with entitlements, victimhood, nor giving handouts, but it has everything to do with fair-share approach for an event that is poised to make the Twin Cities over a billion dollars is revenue. Personally, I have not heard of any Minneapolis’ mayoral candidates talking about the revenue profit and how they would use it, nor have I heard the governor of Minnesota, the honorable Mark Dayton speak as if there was a plan to use “profits” as a springboard to help cherry-pick the most critical blight in Minnesota and use public policy to guide funding in a problem-solving mission that would benefit Minnesota long after the Minnesota Vikings win Super Bowl 52 (just kidding).

The Minnesota Super Bowl Host Committee estimated the Twin Cities metro area will reap $338 million in economic activity from the 2018 game, regardless if some some economists immediately think that amount is too high (Star Tribune, 2017). Stakeholders in the Minnesota’s Black community say the Super Bowl will do better than $500 million-plus and the mainstream is not considering side-deals cut (legally), that would benefit many local businesses including hotels, bars, restaurants and transit. Herein lays the challenge because nobody (at least from what I’ve heard and seen), is talking about how profits from “52” will benefit those less than a mile away from U.S. Bank stadium where a family of four is living on less than ten-thousand dollars a year. Yes, times are tough, but creating meaningful coalitions are tougher.

The current Minneapolis mayor, who might be defeated in November because of her Trumptanious missteps in budget, police operations and leadership remains tight-lipped on even the suggestion of a Community Benefit Agreement (CBA). Mayoral candidate Jacob Frey wants to put so many police in downtown Minneapolis that he went public in a effort to say: “If you look like me, you’ll be safe in downtown Minneapolis.”

Both the St. Paul mayor and Minnesota’s governor are acting more like ambassadors versus problem-solvers by inviting people to see “Minnesota Nice,” versus “Minnesota Real.” But I guess this is how things continue to operate in a state where payoffs to community leaders come in the form of businesses at local venues and direct funding…regardless if anyone’s life trajectory never gets better, there are people at the top who make sure they stay there by never asking any questions and handing the lower one-third of the community to the mainstream on a silver platter.

I think there should be a Community Benefit Agreement (CBA), but not under the current public policy, which is: If they (minority-ethnics) make to much noise, get them leaders in here for a payoff to control the community members and to remind them of the promises that were made. The people at the top (politicians/funders) must stop funding failure or divisiveness. White guilt makes money for some while practical experience and human needs are left to wither like a flower growing in between a crack in the sidewalk.

What have I done for the community? I just spoke my mind…

Ron and Don Show with Ms. Bonita “Bo” Money: Did Al Sharpton sell us out (again)?

Ms. Bonita “Bo” Money, businesswoman, and a guiding force in the United States cannabis industry.

Join us Wednesday, September 27, 2017 at 8:30pm on the Ron and Don Show on #BlogTalkRadio for an EXCLSIVE interview with co-founder of Women Abuv Ground and co-creator of That Glass Jar™. “Bo” is set to expose a trend of Black men and women excluded from the Cannabis conversation and the people who look like us that continue to sell us out.

By The Ron and Don Show

The lack of minority representation (in the Cannabis business) is especially fraught given that research shows African-Americans


were disproportionately arrested and incarcerated during the war on drugs. Now that marijuana is seen as a legitimate business, advocates argue that minorities should also reap the profits (Tracy Jan and Fenit Nirappil, The Washington Post, 2017).

There’s some names we as black business men and women need to know; the first is DECODE.

DECODE Cannabis Education Fund (really), is a 501c3 organization (of course) tasked with organizing a national mobilization effort to educate Americans on the social benefits of a federal mandate removing Cannabis from the Schedule I. In doing so, DECODE will support important issues in the industry such as decriminalization, inclusion, women and minority business, civil rights, research, caregiver/patients rights, workers’ rights, safety & testing and responsible advertising. But some worry that DECODE is allegedly DECIVING the Black community in the United States by ignoring local business people of color who are in the forefront of the cannabis business, but being ignored by this nonprofit agency.

Sources tell Our Black News that the reverend Al Sharpton could have been paid (allegedly) in excess of $25,000 to be the face and representation of Black America’s Cannabis business; if this is true, Sharpton as again sold out and coon’d the black community once again. In the lead-up to the fourth annual Cannabis World Congress Business (CWCB) Exposition in New York City earlier this summer, Rev. Al Sharpton had strong words for the cannabis industry.

Sharpton, a famous civil rights activist and political commentator known for (and sometimes criticized for) his left-leaning views on race, said that people of color need to do more to break into the industry. According to the Huffington Post, Sharpton said that “Just because I don’t use marijuana as a minister, does not mean I have the right to impose my moral values on others. However, I will challenge the cannabis industry and its distributors in states where it is legal to support civil rights movements and ensure that we are not disproportionately excluded from business opportunities.

The cannabis industry itself has been largely white.

…Enter Bonita “Bo” Money, a West Coast businesswoman.

Bonita “Bo” Money

Bonita “Bo” Money is best known for her behind-the-scenes work in Hollywood. Despite having success as a producer early on in her career, with the likes of “Let Me Ride” by Dr. Dre and other big name projects, she surprisingly still faced many barriers.   Bo found that being, not only a young up-and-coming producer but also a young ethnic female, left her fighting for equal pay, respect, and most importantly a network of like-minded women. It’s no surprise then that Bo joined the “Green Rush” on an entrepreneurial whim, but with the complex legalities of an emerging industry that’s still considered federally illegal, Bo did what any smart women would do, foster genuine connections. As Bo learned to navigate the tricky landscape of this illegally legal plant, one of her best friends developed a case of MRSA, a bacterium responsible for causing debilitating almost untreatable infections in humans. It was out of this pure need, to provide her dear friend with compassion and healing, that Bo was able to co-create That Glass Jara powerful cannabis-infused healing topical cream proven to cure the MRSA bacteria as well as a number of other serious illnesses. She quickly found however that touting a cannabis-infused topical was no easy feat. Not while our federal government refuses to acknowledge the medicinal properties of cannabis, a Schedule I drug for which they’ve secured a medical patent.   The whole experience has led Bo to her niche, creating connections to build communities and open doors for all aspiring cannapreneurs, whether they’re working directly or indirectly with the plant. To our great fortune that resulted in her co-founding Women Abuv Ground, a networking organization dedicated to introducing women of color to the cannabis industry, which is by far the only platform to take on such a critical mission. Bo not only knows what it takes but is also eager to share the wealth of information.  “The thing about it is, if you’re not connected, like with any industry, it’s very difficult,” said Bo.

Bonita “Bo” Money provides us with the following facts about women in the cannabis industry:

Women hold 36% of leadership positions in the entire cannabis industry and if you think that number is low, just wait to hear how many minorities hold leadership positions. But know that you’ll have to wait a couple of months, years, maybe. That’s because there is currently no state mandated programs to review such demographic data regarding cannabis business owners. Our guess is that it will be just as shocking as the national average, according to the Survey of Business owners, only a mere 14% of owners are minorities. That’s largely due to the fact that opening up shop requires qualifications and connections as well as large sums of financial and social capital. Add to this a clean record and instantly minorities can find themselves at a huge disadvantage.

“The war on drugs was very biased, very racial…now its creating exclusion for the people of color, because of their criminal record around drugs they’re unable to get licensed,” stated Bonita Money, and as a former producer turned successful Cannapreneurs, she’s well qualified to speak on the subject.

Join Ronald A. Edwards (Black Focus) and Don Allen (The Independent Business News Network) with special guest Bonita “Bo” Money for an eye-opening EXCLUSIVE.


Colin Kaepernick could take the Minnesota Vikings to the Super Bowl?

Colin Kaepernick a Minnesota Viking?

Note: Don’t be a Redneck.

By Don Allen, Publisher

Minneapolis, Minn…Yeah, I know…he wouldn’t stand for the National Anthem and now all of the God fearing patriots and NFL front offices are afraid to hire Colin on their team to take them to the Super Bowl; but what about Minnesota? Hey, I’m a veteran; I salute flags when I drive by them…I always will. I know what it means to be a patriot.

Minnesotans boast they’re the nicest, kindest and non-racist bunch of folks in the United States. Could we show the world that regardless of having the worst wealth and education gap in the U.S. between whites and blacks, we are a kind people and would like Colin to take our team, the Vikings to the Super Bowl in 2018? Stranger things have happened. ESPN staff writer Bill Barnwell penned, “NFL quality of play isn’t worse (but Colin Kaepernick might make it better),” asking the question, “Does the NFL have a quality-of-play problem? Over the first two weeks of the season, it’s fair to say that the league hasn’t exactly delivered much in the way of exciting action. Furthermore, if you really believe that there’s a quality-of-play issue built around offensive problems, there’s a quarterback sitting in the free-agent market who would be an upgrade for a handful of teams and a high-quality backup in case of injury for just about every other team. You can’t simultaneously make an argument saying that the league is suffering from a dearth of quarterbacks and also suggest that Colin Kaepernick doesn’t deserve a meaningful role in the NFL.”

But is this true? The only reason the NFL and and the mainstream dislike Kaepernick is because he stood up for Black Americans, you know, the guys and gals that were not human’s when the Constitution of the United States was written by some old white guys who owned slaves. Does this mean that America is moving backwards in a direction when people owned people? In an unrelated, but related story from The Guardian titled, “Median wealth of black Americans’ will fall to zero by 2053′, warns new report.” This report says that by 2020, median black and Latino households stand to lose nearly 18% and 12% of the wealth they held in 2013 respectively, while median white household wealth increases by 3%,” the report states. “At that point – just three (3) years from now – white households are projected to own 86 times more wealth than black households, and 68 times more wealth than Latino households (Lartey, 2017).

Colin Kaepernick could be the controversial shot in the arm Minnesota needs; I mean my goodness, the most winningest team we (MN) have are those wonderful Minnesota Lynx (Personally, I think the city should rename the Target Center, the Lynx Center – it’s only right).

But I know, Minnesota doesn’t like controversy but comfortable with it’s passive-aggressive behavior disorder and as people of color, we sit silent lead by people that look like us who have sold us out during the Tim Pawlenty administration (former governor of MN), and the current governor holds the ship on course firm and in the direction to disenfranchise any one a shade darker than khaki except for a select few house folks who like waking up to slave dust.

Yeah, I don’t like millionaire cry-babies either, but hell, Colin Kaepernick was letting American know that it has an issue with black people; sans the police shootings in every city in the United States of America, the people lowest on the food chain just happen to have a color, race and overwhelming disparities. Like the opioid epidemic, if the prejudice towards Colin Kaepernick happened to anyone else in another culture, there would be an official statement from the governor’s office on how we’d rid society of this heinous problem.

I say what do we have to lose? Let Colin Kaepernick be a Minnesota Viking.

A Pragmatic Look at Translanguaging and Codeswitching for Teachers

“An excellent job with this paper, Don! You chose a very timely topic—in fact, I witnessed a discussion as to whether or not translanguaging was a useful ‘new’ term or not at a conference just last year. Your paper shows that there is indeed a difference and thus the term is useful to describe a specific set of linguistic behaviors. This paper was an absolute pleasure to read. It was well organized and your discussion was carefully presented and supported by the research. Thank you!”

~Professor Jennifer Killam – Hamline University 2017

By Don Allen, M.A. Ed. 


Translanguaging and Code Switching, parts of English. (photo: Linguistic Code Switching? YouTube)

In a bid to understand how translanguaging and codeswitching  can be perceived in the classroom, there are several comparisons made between the linguistic features such as translanguaging and codeswitching  and their similarities. Several literatures were reviewed in order to understand the basis of the linguistic features in urban English speaking classroom and the importance of the knowledge to the teachers. The introduction of codeswitching  and translanguaging is apparently a hallmark of bilingual communities world-wide and it has only begun to attract serious scholarly attention in the last few decades. These worldwide translanguaging and codeswitching  practices are taken for what they are, namely the normal mode of communication that, with some exceptions in some monolingual enclaves, characterizes communities throughout the world.


Presently, educational programs as regards bilingual and multilingual are gradually increasing. The last four decades have witnessed several global events that have accelerated the process of globalization. The global events have increased the wide spread of English as a lingua franca and the renewal of minority and heritage languages. The change in the approach from monolingual to multilingualism has contributed majorly to the development of field of multilingual research. However, language programs around the globe are still grounded on a monolingual bias and insist on reinforcing traditional monolingual behavior in the language classroom. Though CS is apparently a hallmark of bilingual communities world-wide, it has only begun to attract serious scholarly attention in the last few decades. Researchers first dismissed intrasentential codeswitching  as random and deviant (Weinreich 1953) but are now unanimous in the conviction that it is grammatically constrained. The basis for this conviction is the empirical observation that bilinguals tend to switch intrasententially at certain (morpho) syntactic boundaries and not at others.


Codeswitching involves the use of two or more languages, varieties, or even dialects within a single language turn. This occurs both inside and outside of classrooms. Several scholars have attempted to define code-switching and code-mixing. According to Hymes (1974) codeswitching  is a common term for alternative use of two or more languages varieties of a language or even speech styles. Also Bokamba (1989) proposed that code-switching is the mixing of words, phrases and sentences from two distinct grammatical (sub) systems across sentence boundaries within the same speech event.

Codeswitching is a widespread phenomenon in bilingual speech, and it is therefore not surprising that a great proportion of research on bilingualism focuses on codeswitching . Most researchers, who have paid attention to code-switching, have however been concerned with the sociological interpretation and discourse functions, i.e. the socio-pragmatic aspect of code-switching. For this reason, linguists who do not specialize in bilingualism often automatically assume that research in codeswitching means sociolinguistic research. It is certainly an interesting issue to investigate when and why a speaker chooses one linguistic variety rather than another: this can be explained by stylistic or metaphorical motivation, where factors such as the interlocutor, social role, domain, topic, venue, medium, and type of interaction play an important role. In this case, language alternation can also serve as a conversational cue, expressing attitudes towards language or marking linguistic identity (Auer (ed.) 1998). Only in recent years has research on the patterns of codeswitching, i.e. its grammatical structure, become increasingly focused on in bilingualism research (s. Myers-Scotton 2002).

Researchers in this field discuss the types of code-switching structures that are possible within a given data set. It is possible to offer interesting indications about the underlying structure of language systems by analyzing code-switching constraints, i.e. the points within a sentence at which the transition from one language to the other is possible. This approach can be described as the grammatical approach to code-switching (Auer 1998).

Codeswitching scholarship within sociocultural linguistics may be divided into several (sometimes overlapping) streams. For the purposes of this paper, three broad areas will be discussed: the social psychological approach of Myers-Scotton’s markedness model (1993) and related work; analyses of identity and code choice; and studies of the effect of codeswitchin  on talk in interaction. This last category, largely based on conversation analysis, tends to view codeswitching  behavior both as a method of organizing conversational exchange and as a way to make knowledge of the wider context in which conversation takes place relevant to an ongoing interaction.

Codeswitching  and borrowing are based on some principled combination of elements of the monolingual (i.e., unmixed) vernaculars of the bilingual community, it is important to have as explicit an idea as possible of the nature of these vernaculars before concluding that a code-mixed element is behaving like one or the other. The analysis of code-mixing as a discourse mode requires access to the grammars of the contact languages as they are spoken, and spoken language is characterized by structural variability. In confronting, rather than evading this variability, Sankoff et al. (1990) and Poplack and Meechan (1998) developed a method to compare bilingual structures with the unmixed source languages of the same speakers. Making use of the framework of linguistic variation theory (Labov 1969), the inherent variability of such forms is used to determine their status. If the rate and distribution of, for example, case-marking of the contentious lone other-language items show quantitative parallels to those of their counterparts in the (unmixed) recipient language, while at the same time differing from relevant patterns in the donor language, the lone other-language items are inferred to be borrowed, since only the grammar of the recipient language is operative. If they pattern with their counterparts in the (unmixed) donor language, while at the same time differing from the patterning in the unmixed recipient language, the lone other-language items must result from CS. Quantitative analysis of language mixing phenomena in typologically distinct language pairs shows that lone other-language items, especially major-class content words, are by far the most important component of mixed discourse. These lone items show the same fine details of quantitative conditioning of phonological, morphological, and syntactic variability as dictionary-attested loanwords, both of which in turn parallel their unmixed counterparts in the recipient language (Poplack and Meechan 1998). This tendency is apparent regardless of the linguistic properties of the language pair. This is evidence that most lone items are borrowed, even if only for the nonce, despite the lack, in some cases, of dictionary attestation or diffusion within the community.


Translanguaging differs from the notion of code-switching in that it refers not simply to a shift or a shuttle between two languages, but to the speakers’ construction and use of original and complex interrelated discursive practices that cannot be easily assigned to one or another traditional definition of language, but that make up the speakers’ complete language repertoire.” (García & Wei 2014)

The term translanguaging was first coined by Williams (1994) to refer to a pedagogical practice in Welsh schools where two languages were employed within the same lesson. As an example, students were asked to read in Welsh and write in English. Therefore, both languages alternated. Since this first definition, the concept of translanguaging has been further developed over the last decades in line with the change of language paradigm moving from monolingualism to multilingualism (see Lewis, Jones & Baker, 2012, for a review). At present, the term translanguaging is not only employed in education, but in all multilingual spaces, from homes to streets. In fact, translanguaging refers to “the communicative norm of multilingual communities” (García & Sylvan, 2011, p. 389).

Also García (2009, p. 44) proposed that Translanguaging is an approach to bilingualism that is centered not on languages as has often been the case, but on the practices of bilinguals that are readily observable. These worldwide translanguaging practices are seen here not as marked or unusual, but rather taken for what they are, namely the normal mode of communication that, with some exceptions in some monolingual enclaves, characterizes communities throughout the world.

More specifically, Canagarajah (2011, p. 401) claims that translanguaging refers to “the ability of multilingual speakers to shuttle between languages, treating the diverse languages that form their repertoire as an integrated system”. Such conception contrasts with a monolingual perspective according to which languages were conceived as bound systems located in separated boxes in the brain. In line with current models, such as the Dynamic Model of Multilingualism proposed by Herdina and Jessner (2002) suggests that multilingual speakers use the language systems in their linguistic repertoire as a continuum and not as entities detached from each other.

Nevertheless, to the best of our knowledge, very few studies to date have explored the translanguaging practices of very young learners, although the one conducted by García, Makar, Starcevic and Terry in 2011 can be considered one of the few exceptions. García et al. (2011) analyze the language practices of 37 preschoolers aged five and six at a school located in the city of New York. The school follows a two-way dual bilingual program in which Spanish and English are taught as vehicular languages. Even though classes are supposed to be only in English or only in Spanish, the authors describe how these young multilingual learners use translanguaging for six functions: (1) To mediate understandings among each other; (2) To construct meaning of what the other is saying; (3) To construct meaning within themselves; (4) To include others; (5) To exclude others, and; (6) to demonstrate knowledge. According to García et al.’s (2011) findings, the most common function of translanguaging is to co-construct meaning. However, the focus of this study is on a bilingual program, and, as far as we know, very few studies have taken into consideration the interaction of more than two languages inside the same.


Language experts across the globe have investigated in their experiments the causes, functions, characteristics and effects of code-switching. Such investigations on the causes of the phenomena, for instance, have revealed sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic factors. One is bilingualism or language contact that results “in lexical borrowings and mixture of English and vernacular expression” in the speech of West African bilinguals (Ansre, 1971; Bamgbose, 1971; Cheng & Butler, 1989). Some are status, integrity, self-pride, comfortability and prestige (Akere, 1977; Bokamba, 1989; Hymes, 1962; Kachru, 1989; Kamwangamalu, 1989). Other causes include modernisation, westernization, efficiency, professionalism and social advancement (Kachru, 1989; Kamwangamalu, 1989). According to these scholars, some of the functions of code-switching and code-mixing are intra-group identity (Gumperz, 1982); poetic creativity (Kachru, 1989) and the expression of modernisation (Kamwangamalu, 1989). One of the major characteristics of both phenomena is their imposition as the norm of language use in the most bilingual communities (Kamwangamalu, 1989). Among their effects, however, are undermining of certain traditional values (Kachru, 1989), innovations in the structure of one of the other of the languages code-switched and code-mixed (Kamwangamalu, 1989) and making one language to be more dominant than the other, thereby causing the individual to switch always to the dominant language (Cheng & Butler, 1989). It is observed that all the studies on the phenomena reviewed so far above are silent on the implication the phenomena have on language acquisition right from childhood. It is this area that this study focuses and explores in order to verify what the situational implications are in respect of the acquisition of language in childhood.


The foregoing study appears to have shown that code-switching and translanguaging correlate positively with the educational attainment of individuals. As shown also, both phenomena have their merits as well as demerits in the speech repertoire of their users. Some of the functions of code-switching and are intra-group identity (Gumperz, 1982); poetic creativity (Kachru, 1989) and the expression of modernization (Kamwangamalu, 1989). Translanguaging refers to the ability of multilingual speakers to shuttle between languages, treating the diverse languages that form their repertoire as an integrated system. Such conception contrasts with a monolingual perspective according to which languages were conceived as bound systems located in separated boxes in the brain.


Bokamba, E. 1989. Are there Syntactic Constraints on Code-mixing? World Englishes 8(3).

Canagarajah, S. (2011). Codemeshing in academic writing: Identifying teachable strategies of translanguaging. The Modern Language Journal, 95, 401–417.

Cheng, L. & Butler, K. (1989). Code-switching: A Natural Phenomenon vs. Language Deficiency. World Englishes 8(3).

García, O., Makar, C., Starcevic, M., & Terry, A. (2011). The translanguaging of Latino kindergartners.

Gumperz, J.J. (1982). Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Herdina, P., & Jessner, U. (2002). A dynamic model of multilingualism: Perspectives of change in psycholinguistics. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Hymes, D. (1962). The Ethnography in Speaking. In: T. Gladwin (ed.), Anthropology And Man Behaviour. Washington.

Kachru, Y. (1989). Code-mixing, Style Repertoire and Language Variation: English in Hindu Poetic Creativity. World Englishes 8(3).

Kamwangamalu, N. (1989). Code-mixing and Modernisation. World Englishes 8(3).

Labov, W. (1969) Contraction, deletion, and inherent variability of the English copula. Language 45(4): 715–62

Lewis, G., Jones, B., & Baker, C. (2012) Translanguaging: origins and development from school to street and beyond. Educational Research and Evaluation: An International Journal on Theory and Practice, 18 (7), 641-654. doi:10.1080/13803611.2012.718488

Myers-Scotton, C., (1993) Duelling Languages. Clarendon Press, Oxford, UK

Poplack S, M., (1998) Instant Loans, Easy Conditions: The Productivity of Bilingual Borrowing; Special Issue of the International Journal of Bilingualism. Kingston Press, London

Rothman, J. & Potowski, K. (2011). Bilingual youth: Spanish in English speaking societies pp. 33-55). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Weinreich, U. (1968) Languages in contact. Mouton, The Hague

Williams, C. (1994). An evaluation of teaching and learning methods in the context of bilingual secondary education. Bangor: University of Wales.




Why local media did not report about stabbing victim in downtown Minneapolis

Downtown Minneapolis’ Warehouse District; once a place of fun and excitement, now a place to watch who you pass on the streets. (photo: Meet Minneapolis – Fair Use, Google Search).

If it bleeds, it leads; not in the case of a 24-year old black American female that almost lost her life in downtown Minneapolis. Remember, the Super Bowl is coming and we don’t talk anything but “Minnesota Nice” in the ugly eye of oversights.

By Don Allen, Publisher – IBNN NEWS

24-year old Myra Reed is laying in a hospital bed at HCMC with eight staples in her heart from a knife attack that went in her stomach, up through her liver and pierced her heart. Her aunt, Angela Edwards tells the story about what happened from Reed who now is coming out of a fog from this violent encounter.

“Myra was in a shelter in downtown Minneapolis and might have got into an argument with some other women. As she was being attacked, laying on the ground, someone passed  the young woman fighting Myra a butcher knife and that’s all my nice remembers,” said Edwards.

Downtown Minneapolis’ Warehouse Distirct has become a area of great concern and rising crime. While the city of Minneapolis wants to play-down the violent after club crime in the streets, others, including this author are troubled by the once “fun area” of Minneapolis on some nights turning into a gang-land shooting and stabbing range.

In June of 2017, the City Pages published, “17 years of watching downtown Minneapolis go from vibrant to shaky to frightful,” by Carter Averbeck who wrote:

“One would think I live in a war zone, and that notion wouldn’t be wrong. The police now have become reactive instead of proactive. Political restrictions placed on them by a higher level of city government render their abilities almost futile, since a crime has to happen before they can act.And city council? When I send them the footage, I am lucky if I even get a response back. In the case that I do, it’s usually some slick rhetoric that does nothing to solve the issue, while real time crime continues to escalate.

Myra Reed might have not been the most perfect Minnesotan, but she lived the best way she could. Living in shelters, trying to get your life back together is not an easy task; but when someone has reached an animalistic level of terror and attacks with intent to kill, there is something very wrong in a system that overlooks the “least of thee” in what should have been headline news at 6pm and at least a mention in the local newspapers. Reed was stabbed on Tuesday, August 9 with no media coverage.

Sources tell IBNN, the City of Minneapolis is not willing to give up on downtown Minneapolis with alleged plans to ship “shelter people” far away from the city during the Super Bowl events, making it seem like Minneapolis is some type of Urban Shangri-La.

What has happened to Ms. Reed has happened to many more in downtown Minneapolis; most incidents of this nature go unreported because of the demographic of this population: Poor, of color, veterans, families, children and all homeless – a combination best left alone, not talked about and most of all hidden from the people and millions of dollars the city will make during one of the largest sporting events in the world.

In a mayoral election year, I’m sure no one is concerned about Ms. Reed; and certainly, the mainstream media is in collaboration with the city to make sure “bad” stays “silent.”

Minneapolis mayoral candidate Al Flowers on Twin Cities New Talk

Al Flowers with Michael Eric Dyson.

By IBNN NEWS – (Sponsored Placement)

Al Flowers, candidate in a crowded field of contenders for Minneapolis’ mayoral seat that is up for grabs in 2017. Local mainstream media outlets, mainly the Star Tribune have ignored Flowers and have taken quotes out of context and attributed them to other candidates in what we think is an attempt to silence Flowers and his come-from behind non-traditional approach.

On Monday, July 31 around 8:00AM, Minneapolis mayoral candidate will mix it up with the two most important men in political talk radio: Jon Justice and Drew Lee of the “Justice and Drew Show” on Twin Cities News Talk, AM 1130/FM 103.5; an #iHeartRadio station.

Flowers says, “I humbled by this opportunity to be on such a powerful radio program and I hope that listeners will tune in and hear what I have to say. I’m not scared to answer any question, but I also want to make sure the real story gets out,” said Flowers.

Over a month ago, a north Minneapolis mother was traumatized when she came home and found her 15-year old daughter in the bedroom closet dead from hanging herself. The Star Tribune, fully briefed on the situation never wrote a story about the circumstances surrounding the young girls’ death, nor that she was interrogate by police for over four-hours who sought information about a local north Minneapolis murder the young child might, or might not have witnessed.

Flowers is instrumental in making sure the public has the opportunity to review police body camera footage planting himself in the state legislature in 2016 demanding that privacy wasn’t just for the police and local news agencies.

About Al Flowers – Truth to the People! www.TruthtothePeople.com

Al Flowers believes that police accountability starts with the City of Minneapolis following the Federal Mediation Agreement between the Police Federation and the community.

The black elected and Al.

Al Flowers reveals his New Housing Policy and Funding Platform at the Northside Minneapolis Mayoral Forum.

Al Flowers work includes organizing for the The North Minneapolis African American Housing Opportunity Survey in collaboration University of Minnesota Center for Urban and Regional Affairs (CURA).

Communities are united together to get needs met for all in Minneapolis under Al Flowers leadership. Whether you are White, Somali, Latino, LGBT, Hmong, young, elderly, or Black, you have a seat at the table.

Al Flowers Creates Community Dialogue

Al Flowers has shown through the radio and TV the importance of talking to people. We need a Mayor who will excel in walking into every community and have an authentic dialogue, not just there for a photo-op.

Al Flowers Respects People

Minneapolis has become a nation wide embarrassment for our horrendous police-community relations. It has gotten to the point that people do not call the 911 because they view the police making the situation even worse. This has got to stop. Al Flowers believes that the Minneapolis Police should serve all residents in this city.

Al Flowers Brings Common Sense Government

Too much bureaucracy is getting in the way providing good policies and resources to people. Al Flowers knows that basic rights are not “privileges” and getting paid for your work is not an “entitlement”. Al Flowers has established programs with many to meet the needs of families and individuals in Minneapolis.

Al Flowers cares for our Elders and Youth

Al Flowers a community activist directed the meeting of with community leaders, faith leaders and police officials talking about the recent outbreak of violence on North side.] A group of community leaders met with police officials and others today to talk about shootings and homicides that have pushed the north side to near boiling point. In the basement of New Bethel Baptist Church, Community Standards Initiative was held with community leaders, faith leaders and police officials talking about the recent outbreak of violence on North side. Richard.Sennott@startribune.com Richard Sennott/Star Tribune Minneapolis Minn. Wednesday 7/9/2014)

As a family man, Al Flowers had committed to seeing our young people be provided with positive choices in education. Providing positive choices for young people will results in positive outcomes for years to come. In addition, Al Flowers is concerned that the needs of our elders are not seen and heard. Needs of those who help built our communities need to be met and with out any exceptions

Al Flowers has Strength and Dedication

Often times fragile egos get in the way of getting things done. Politicians would rather be heard they are right then doing what is right for the people. Al Flowers has demonstrated the strength to pursue good ideas and is dedicated to do what is best for our communities.

Larry Tucker: The Surreptitious state of Being

To Whom It May Concern:

Mr. Larry Tucker; long-time north Minneapolis resident (photo: Facebook).

My name is Larry Tucker, I am an American Black having been a resident of Minnesota for over 45 years with one of my four children born in Minneapolis. I have witnessed the decline of the American Blacks in the Twin Cities. It is easy to point to other cultures as the culprit for what they did are doing not doing.

I lived through the FIRES OF THE 60’S and after going home to change my smoke filled clothes I met with politicians late at night to early in the morning in obscure places going over and over the issues. After which only to discover we had not done enough to resolve our own issues. The issues surrounding disparate treatment has been unresolved within the American Black Culture, as a significant cause of our station in Minnesota and this country.  At the time, if you were low income black you were without a voice in the dialoged. Many of the spokespersons then and now suffered from the STOCKHOLM SYNDROM (where the prisoners began to treat each other in a the same manner negative manner as they were being treated),

I have been asked over the years. “Why don’t Blacks do more to assist other Blacks”?

Several years ago we had a Black Bankers association convention in Minneapolis and the president of Chase Manhattan Bank was in attendance. He stated that he had brought several American Blacks employees into the bank but they failed to bring on other Blacks.

On a separate occasion a spokesperson for the McKnight Foundation made similar statements in the early 1970’s. On that occasion the McKnight Foundation had given a black neighborhood group funds to build a home, if successful would have been given additional funds if successful. However, the Black nonprofit was unable to sale the home at a stated price for failure to lose money and was told by the spokesperson for The McKnight foundation to reduce the price and sale the house.

Lastly, my experience over 70’ plus years has requires us to address the disparate treatment in the  American Black culture  in addition to addressing the disparate treatment by other cultures.

Respectful Submitted

Larry Tucker

What Black Parents Must Do This Summer

Dr. Jawanza Kunjufu

by Dr. Jawanza Kunjufu

There is a 3 year gap between Black and White students. Many people love to believe it’s due to income fatherlessness, educational attainment of the parent and lack of parental involvement. I believe a major reason for the gap is we continue to close schools for the summer as if we are an agrarian economy. Very few Black youth will be farming this summer. If you multiply 3 months by 12 years you will see the 3 year gap. There is nothing wrong with Black youth if their schools remained open during the summer and/or their parents kept them academically engaged.
Middle-income parents who value education enroll their children in some type of academic experience during the summer. They also visit libraries, museums, zoos and colleges. Other parents allow their children to sleep longer, play more video games, watch more television and play basketball until they can’t see the hoop. These students will have to review the same work they had mastered in May in September.
Black parents cannot allow their child to lose 3 months every year. Black parents cannot say they cannot afford the library. It’s free! Most museums have discounted days. A male friend of mine shared his experience with me when he took his family to the museum. He wondered why so many people were staring at him. His wife and children had to tell him he was the only Black man in the building! I am appealing to every father to take his children this summer to the library, museum, and the zoo. I a appealing to every mother if he won’t, you will.
We need every parent to make sure their child reads at least one book per week and to write a book report. I am reminded of the formula Sonya Carson used to develop Ben Carson to become the best pediatric neurosurgeon. This low-income single parent, with a third grade education, had enough sense to tell her sons to turn off the television, read a book and write a report that her sister would grade!
I have a theory that I can go into your house and within 5 minutes tell you the type of student who lives there and predict their future. I believe that engineers, doctors, lawyers, accountants etc. need different items in their house than ballplayers, rappers, and criminals. I am very concerned when I visit a house that has more cds and downloads than books. My company African American Images has designed a special
collection of books for boys. Research shows one of the major reasons boys dislike reading is because of the content. The set is titled Best Books for Boys. We also have one for girls, parents and teachers. Enjoy your summer. Let’s close the gap. I look forward to your child’s teacher asking your child what did you do for the summer? And your child answering we went to the library, museum, zoo, colleges and other great
educational places. Excerpt from There is Nothing Wrong with Black Students.

Did Linguistics and the study of language neglect Black boys? #blackdegreesmatter

By Don Allen, M.A. Ed.

It troubles me that in 2017 in the United States, we still have a challenge with the teaching of language, reading, literacy and critical thinking to boys of Black American heritage; to be very clear, there are some items we need to explore. First, public schools, curriculum and classroom design were never meant to house, teach or guide black boys. Secondly, the people who control identity, are the same who control language, wealth and education. It’s unfortunate we have to live by rules that were never meant nor updated for us (sans the victim mentality).  A 1990 study of more than 105,000 students in Maryland’s Prince George’s County, where African Americans made up about 65 percent of the enrollment, showed that black male pupils performed comparably to boys and girls of all races on first- and second-grade standardized math and reading test. But by fourth grade, African American boys experienced a sharp decline in their scores. More recent national studies have shown similar findings: In 1994, fourth-grade reading scores of African American boys lagged behind those of all other groups at the same grade level, according to the National Center for Education Statistics (Bennett-Alexander, 1997). This becomes problematic because we know that prisons use a grade four model do create an anticipatory set on how many prisons will be needed. We know that our private prison systems are calculating how many new beds (they will need) based on the third grade, number of third graders, and that’s just wrong,” I think waiting until kids are ready for kindergarten to begin to intervene is too late (Ford, 2013).

What the experts are saying:

  • Three of four African-American boys in California classrooms failed to meet reading and writing standards on the most recent round of testing, according to data obtained from the state Department of Education and analyzed by CALmatters (Department of Education, 2016).
  • African American males in primary and secondary schools were suspended more than twice as often as white males in 1992, according to the Office of Civil Rights. (Levin, 2017).
  • The United States has made virtually no improvement in reaching its lowest performing students. Although the percentage of white students in the country has declined dramatically over the past 50 years, while the percentage of black students has changed very little, the achievement levels of black students compared to white students (and other racial/ethnic groups) has barely narrowed (Hanushek, 2006).

One of the problems in public school education is that some poor, economically disadvantaged Black boys are treated as victims.  If you are walking into a classroom and see students as victims, you are seeing them as having an inherent flaw that only you can fix. You [the teacher] are there to help them learn and allow them to do fixing for themselves (Elie, 2016). The cup-filling and entitlements become less-than a strict balance of academic rigor and low expectations from educators make it simple for this lost generation to get passed on and graduate as functional illiterates. In an article by author Maya Elie: Author’s Advice to White Teachers in Urban Schools: Drop the ‘Savior Complex’ and Learn from Students, Elie writes in an interview with Dr. Christopher Emdin, an associate professor at Columbia University’s Teachers College, who is a passionate and unapologetic advocate for the advancement of urban education nationwide who wrote the book, For White Folks Who Teach in the Hood…and the Rest of Y’all Too, says:

“There are teachers who are not being trained appropriately. Not to speak negatively about education schools, but there are people coming out of school with a Masters or Bachelor’s in education, taking one class in multiculturalism, or one class on ethnicity, race and politics. Then these teachers go into spaces where race, politics, ethnicity and class are the biggest factors they have to face. There’s also the idea of the hyper-scripted curriculum that the teachers don’t have the space to ask the students about who they are” (Elie, 2016).

How does Linguistics play a role in this hyper-critical failure for Black Boys?

One of many positions held by linguists and many anthropologists locates the problem not in the children, but in the relations between them and the school system. This position holds that inner-city children do not necessarily have inferior mothers, language, or experience, but that the language, family style, and ways of living of inner-city children are significantly different from the standard culture of the classroom, and that this difference is not always properly understood by teachers and psychologists. Linguists believe that we must begin to adapt our school system to the language and learning styles of the majority in the inner-city schools. They argue that everyone has the right to learn the standard languages and culture in reading and writing (and speaking, if they are so inclined); but this is the end result, not the beginning of the educational process. They do not believe that the standard language is the only medium in which teaching and learning can take place, or that the first step in education is to convert all first-graders to replicas of white middle-class suburban children (Labov, 1972). Even after decades of research on African American English (AAE), there is still no consensus as to exactly how it has developed. Although there are several theories, the two most prominent are featured in Do You Speak American? One theory suggests that when slaves of different language backgrounds were transported from Africa to America, they developed a pidgin—a simplified version of a language used for communication between people or groups who do not have a common language. This language subsequently developed into a full-fledged creole language that children acquired in their homes. (Some creole languages—languages that have developed out of pidgins and have acquired native speakers—have the word creole in their names—for example, Hawaiian Creole—while others do not—for example, Gullah.) It is believed that the Gullah spoken to this day on the sea islands of South Carolina and Georgia closely resembles the language used by slaves on plantations. Because plantation slaves were not taught English and had limited contact with English speakers, some features of this creole were passed from generation to generation. These features have survived post-slavery because as AAE developed, it became more than just a means of communicating between groups: It is a source of solidarity among people who use it. A second theory is that slaves in the South worked alongside indentured servants who spoke non-mainstream varieties of English. African American slaves learned English from these indentured servants (often of Scots-Irish descent). People who believe this explanation for the beginning of AAE say that it explains similarities between AAE and other non-mainstream varieties of English (such as Appalachian English, which shares some linguistic features with AAE), (PBS, n.d.).

The constraints of Urban Education in the “James” Crow Era

The fact is, Black boys in public school settings are not learning language, the use of, or anything else. The major challenge points to teacher training universities (current), and curriculum that has been surreptitiously void of all cultural responsive content-in-context. The challenge of Black boys and their education now becomes a part of a racial-political paradigm that is still controlled by the people who designed the construct in the beginning. If educators look at the model of first-things-first in urban education, they would understand that until all gaps are gone, there can be no success for the Black boy, nor the black in the federation in education.  By recognizing these challenges, we’re also acknowledging the responsibility we share to bridge the race, language and color divides in our country. No doubt our Black Boys are smart enough, spirited enough, and genuine enough to meet the challenge. The question is, are we?


Bennett-Alexander, D. (1997, April ). Are schools failing black boys? Parenting Magazine.

Elie, M. (2016, July 8). Author’s advice to white teachers in urban schools: Drop the ‘savior complex’       and learn from students. NEAToday. Retrieved from neaToday.

Hanushek, E. a. (2006, October). School quality and the black-white achievement gap. National Bureau of Economic Research, Stanford University, University of Texas at Dallas.

Labov, W. (1972, June). Academic ignorance and black intelligence. The Atlantic. (T. Atlantic, Ed.) New York, NY, U.S.

Levin, M. (2017, June 6). 75% of black California boys don’t meet state reading standards. (L. A. News, Producer) Retrieved June 6, 2017, from Los Angeles Daily News Literacy : http://www.dailynews.com/social-affairs/20170604/75-of-black-california-boys-dont-meet-state-reading-standards

PBS. (n.d.). Do you speak American?. Carnegie Corporation of New York. Twin Cities Television (TPT). (C. C. York, Ed.) Minneapolis, MN, U.S. .


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