Our Black News – Critical Thinking for the Advancement of Colored People
Monday January 18th 2021

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The Fall of the Anti-Trump Charlatans

Hey Stupid, Donald Trump didn’t do it. If you are one of the many fake revolutionists who hit social media as if you’re a leader of a country that will stop Donald Trump, sit your fake ass down. You didn’t do anything for anyone during president Obama’s tenure, and you will continue to be ineffective…but this time, you have someone to blame it on; so you think…

By Don Allen, Publisher

Not one elected official nor community leader form Minnesota to Washington, DC who governs over a community where there are large numbers of Black people have any business being anti-Trump…as it stands now you are in trouble. If president-elect Donald J. Trump caused all these challenges after being elected, then what have you be doing for the last eight-years?

You cannot be anti-Trump when your constituents are homeless school children; you cannot be anti-Trump if unemployment in some of your senate districts are in double-digits for blacks and other POC. You cannot be anti-Trump if veterans are still homeless standing by freeway ramps with signs asking for money. You cannot be anti-Trump if for more than 10-years, you’ve let nonprofits suck up millions of dollars meant to serve the people but did little to nothing to change the sustainability of those people in the name of God and poor people. You cannot be anti-Trump if you listen to celebrities with the education of sugar-cane and somehow take them seriously when they tell you they will move if Donald Trump is elected…for the record, not one of those over-paid talking heads moved anywhere, except to a bigger house afforded to them by the many royalties begotten them for fooling you on the television. You cannot be anti-Trump if you are a one-sided, gullible-goon that takes every opportunity to race-bait inside of the lower one-third of the community causing chaos; you know the type, telling black school children that Trump would send them back to Africa – you’re a bastard for that. If you really take Rosie O’Donnell seriously, and you’re a black, not even Africa would let you enter.

In all reality, you should be ashamed of yourself for saying anything sideways about president-elect Donald J. Trump because all the windows in your glass house are now broken and we can see from The Root to CNN that your one-sided lie has obstructed information and your bias news has stumbled a nation into a revolutionary-falseness somehow blaming Donald Trump for things you have not completed during your watch in the last 10-years.

On tomorrow (1/16/17), we celebrate Martin Luther King, Jr’s legacy; some will make a pretty piece of money selling “the Dream” to elite black folks who operate in social cabals free of the responsibility in addressing the needs of the lower one-third of the black community. But of course, the conversation about stopping Trump; what Trump said, or did is always great conversation fodder and always shows the hypocrisy of the black elites.

Before you ever criticize president-elect Donald Trump, think of what Martin said: “Life’s most persistent and urgent question is, ‘What are you doing for others?”  In most cases, black elected officials and the black elite are “doing for themselves.”

In 2020, can Michelle Obama do what Hillary Clinton could not?

…they said Trump couldn’t win…

by Don Allen, Publisher 

Michelle Obama, possible 2020 presidential candidate? Time will tell.

For the record, I’m a Republican; but not an establishment republican – you know the type, especially when you’re a person of color. In this case, I am a reader of the public sphere, or visionary of what the future holds in political rhetoric. On July 25, 2016, I wrote the story, “November 2016: Donald J. Trump is elected as President of the United States,” in a futuristic look at what happened on the day president-elect Trump won:

“New York City…It’s Wednesday, November 9. The world is on edge today as It was announced at 12:01AM CST that based on the votes counted, it looks like Donald Trump is the new president of the United States. Of course the mainstream media declared Trump president based on skewed exit polls that never had poll-personnel in the hood. It was also strange and wonderful that the American people who supported Bernie Sanders wrote his name in on their ballots, which now at 12:05AM lead the votes for Hillary Clinton by 1.2 million; in reality, Bernie beat Hillary in 2016, but both lost to the “Trump” machine of public relations and communications.” (Written July 25, 2016, Our Black News)

Yes, indeed, Donald J. Trump became the 45th president of the United States of America and not one D-rated actor, musician or elite democrat moved out of the country. It seems that for the most part, Mr. Trump did “Grab the p**y,” over 50 percent of white women voted for him…he grabbed something. If one sat back and looked at the larger picture, they would see that mainstream media outlet (including Fox) were sure that Hillary Clinton would dust off Trump squarely in the 2016 elections. Online polls were wrong; pundits (who should be fired) were wrong, and the relaxing ease of a Hillary Clinton win over Donald J. Trump was saturated in the mainstream media market of checks and balances…but no one looked deeper into the underlying belly of the best to see the surreptitious bubbling of popular culture that disallowed an establishment, republican or democrat to control what felt good to them as voters in the United States…it was Trump all along. Society created Donald J. Trump the billionaire business mogul who only had to turn in the direction of the 2016 presidential campaign to win it, all others were absolutely void of this very important point.  Supporters of the democratic contender used every tactic possible to shame people in the United States from supporting Trump including one of my personal favorites: “If you support rape, misogamy, racism and hate, you support Donald J. Trump.” The challenge with this argument about what someone supports comes first from the people who believed in what they said and wrote; and secondly from the folks who let Ethos (emotions), overrides sound logic. In simple clarity, you cannot say or think what I support if you do not know me, my life, ambitions, successes or failures. The assumption that I support what you think I support because of a choice that I make is only for you to own; not me – the logic is fleeting in any argument in this regard.

To make matters difficult, many political strategist and television news rating hounds who left looking at things objectively started turning towards the black community citing black Americans did not come out and support or vote for secretary Clinton. This might have been true, but then again this is the mainstream media, pundit’s, and elite democrats fault for broadcasting messages that Hillary Clinton was in the lead during the last six-months before the November 8 election. Hillary Clinton never at one moment during the 2016 presidential election cycle ever had it, “in the bag” as it pertains to running against Donald J. Trump and the mainstream media…society woke up, ergo, Donald J. Trump is president of the United States.

The question now: What will happen in 2020? Again, being a visionary and always voting for winners, I see a huge challenge for the Republican Party of America if now first lady Michelle Obama decides to toss her preverbal hat into the ring in 2020. There is a distinct ring of success for 2020 run at the White House for Ms. Obama and whoever she decides to pick as a running mate. Currently things are not looking good for the democrats with the very public beatings of Trump supporters, some who are physically and mentally disabled.  Something to note, if Michelle Obama decides to run in 2020, the gloves will be off, as they were with her husband. If some of you get so offended you don’t know what to do, remember this; In 1964, Justice William Brennan wrote, in the landmark defamation case New York Times v. Sullivan, that our Constitution demands that ‘debate on public issues should be uninhibited, robust, and wide-open, and that it may well include vehement, caustic, and sometimes unpleasantly sharp attacks on government and public officials.’

In closing, dear liberals and supporters of bad policies and empty promises, your time is over.

Please just walk away and stop sending messages to the less intelligent in our community that violence is the only option because Hillary Clinton did not win. It’s politics and sometime other people do the thinking for you…don’t ever let that happen again and be like me, don’t look at a party, look at the person…in 2016 the person I voted for was Donald J. Trump, not because he was a Republican, but a hell-raiser on the level I hope to ascend to very shortly. Vote to win, be a winner.

Minneapolis Safe: Mayor adds nothing to economic uplift

Minneapolis mayor Betsy Hodges won her seat because voters think she had something in common with local POC.

By Don Allen, Publisher

Minneapolis, Minn. –  No…more police will not make Minneapolis safe, neither will the ban on plastic bags in local corner stores. This mayor is missing the point; letting the same stores sell glass-crack and meth pipes with Brillo™ and not being concerned in the least about the communities where this happens shows that Minneapolis mayor Betsy Hodges, her advisors, staff and new hires have no connection with the reality of what should be the real Minneapolis.

Mayor Hodges disposition is one of a science fiction movie, say the “Minority Report,” where a “pre-crime” division heads out and arrests perpetrators before they actually commit a crime. It seems in Hodges limited cognitive realty (or more like a really terrible version of the Kardashian’s with Odom), that more police would make Minneapolis safer, when in fact just about any local police officer would tell you it’s a wet-dream with whipped cream if you think any mass number of police will make a place safer; it hasn’t happened in history and Hodges is not a history-maker.

The case for my missive is not broken down by race or color, but from the need for this mayor to take her last year in office and make a difference for the people of Minneapolis. With a budget of over $1 million…Oops, $1 billion (#Cano must go), it’s an opportune time for the mayor to look inside at city hall and make the necessary adjustments in civil rights, contract compliance and her fledgling equity department. There is no “equity” of any part of the city if it has double-digit unemployment, mass public assistance reliance and a sector of the community (doesn’t matter what race or color) systematically gentrified by one bad city choice, backroom deals and third-party arrangements.

Mayor Hodges cannot consult with “high-brows” and expect the work to be done for the “little people.” This is especially tough in the communities of color where one would think Hodges would make a difference, but has stuck to the Obama Clinical Citation (OCC) of, “I’m everyone’s, whatever.” In and case, Hodges will be remembered as nothing more than a placeholder mayor for a political party and how sad is that?

James “Jimmy” Hamilton: The Death of a High School Band Teaching Legend

Mr. Hamilton had many sons, I was one. He knew what his students needed and made sure each of us worked towards success while listening to his oral history (stories) and experiences to help us avoid making mistakes in life. He did say, “Some of you will touch the flame on the stove just to check and see if it will burn. That’s okay; that’s curiosity.”

By Don Allen, Minneapolis Central Marching Band – Class of 1979

Mr. James “Jimmy” Hamilton; father to many, teacher of all.

Mr. Hamilton would have figured it out. Matter of fact, he probably already did. In 1976 I joined the Minneapolis Central marching band, the teacher was Mr. Hamilton. This was a man with profound wisdom who chained-smoked Benson and Hedges cigarettes in the band room between classes; of course in those days’ people weren’t hyper sensitive…no global warming; no bathroom issues; boys were boys and girls were girls (period). In 1976, the Minneapolis Public School system was one of the most admired and functioning school districts in the United States. Educators came to the Twin Cities from across the world to see what made MPS tick; what was the organizational design that graduated all students from all walks of life and why upscale parents chose public schools over private schools, especially Minneapolis Central, Washburn, West (Uptown, where the Y sits on Hennepin and 28th), Edison, South, Marshal U, North (All high schools), and Bancroft, Field, Fowell, Bryant and Ramsey (elementary and middle schools). Each school had a complement of teachers like Mr. Hamilton who match the current culture, curriculum and academic content, in short, every student was motivated to get to school everyday, which created an academic social construct of unique connections, environments and unprecedented learning experiences in real time. We were the best.

Mr. Hamilton was a teachers-teacher. Every student he came in contact with had a separate and eye-opening experience with this man. I remember him walking up to one of the football players at Minneapolis Central and telling him, “You probably will sit the bench this season and I need a tall tuba player for the marching band; you can always play basketball during the winter.”  Of course we had a new tuba player and Mr. Hamilton worked with him teaching him how to read the music, play the notes and of course, march with the rest of the band. Mr. Hamilton inspired greatness in all of us. Then there was me; I played alto sax in the first chair until a woman by the name of Mona Wong got to central, she was one hell of a sax player and could read music ten-times better than I. That’s when I switched to b-flat tenor saxophone – it was a good time sitting next to Sue (the other sax player and far removed from the flute section, who at times weighed on my nerve.

One of the repeated greatest experiences I ever had at Minneapolis Central is when Prince would show up after the last class of the day and sit on the piano with Mr. Hamilton talking to him about theory. Back then, my job for the Neighborhood Youth Corp was being the teacher’s aide for band and Mr. Hamilton. Prince and Mr. Hamilton could look at each other and not say a word and the piano would chime out cords like an augmented seventh cord embedded into a funky riff. The experience is something I can never forget.

When I said Mr. Hamilton would have, or did figure it out, I meant this thing about black, poor and disenfranchised students not doing well in our local public education. Mr. Hamilton had the gift of connection, like all teachers should. This is the man who raised me and a thousands of other students while we were under his leadership in high school. A lot of us didn’t have our father’s in the house and Mr. Hamilton made room in his life to be our advisor, father-figure, friend and music teacher. For this I am grateful and Mr. Hamilton will live forever.

My deepest condolences to Mr. Hamilton’s family, friends and Jazz legends.

Funeral services for Jimmy Hamilton will be held on Friday January 13th at 11am at Edina Chapel, 7110 France Ave. S., Edina. Cremation Society of Minnesota, 952-924-4100. 

Somali chaos in St. Cloud; check Lutheran Social Service of Minnesota

by Ann Corcoran (Originally posted on March 26, 2015; but makes much more sense today)

If you are angry (about the tension in St. Cloud) and want one entity to blame, it is Lutheran Social Service of Minnesota, the primary federal refugee resettlement agency working in St. Cloud!

That supposedly ‘Christian’ charitable organization is directly responsible for the high Somali numbers in St. Cloud, and they are jointly responsible for bringing over ten thousand Somalis from around the world to colonize Minnesota towns in the last ten years alone—Catholic Charities and World Relief MN (now Arrive Ministries)*** helped also.  Of course they have brought many more than 10,000 in over two decades and not just Somali Muslims!

Rumor has it that 1,500 new Somalis are going to be resettled by the Lutherans in St. Cloud this year.  (This is part of former Rep. Michele Bachmann’s district!) Doing well by doing good? Jodi Harpstead is making over $300,000 a year to seed St. Cloud and other Minnesota towns with Somali Muslims.

These three ‘Christian’ phony non-profits (phony Christians!) could stop the US State Department’s further seeding of the state if they just said NO!  We won’t resettle any more Muslim ‘refugees.’   But they don’t!  Why?

Why? Because it is big business (as we learned from Lutherans in New England)!  They dare not challenge their sugar daddy—the federal government!  And, they must be afraid of the growing power of the Islamists and the Islamist front group—Council on American Islamic Relations (CAIR)—which they are responsible for unleashing on the city of St. Cloud.

So how much money does it take to buy the Lutherans?

Back in 2013 we told you that then Minnesota Lutheran CEO, Mark Peterson, was pulling down a salary of $441,767.

Read the full story here. 


Community Activist Alfred D. Flowers enters the Minneapolis Mayor’s race

For Immediate Release

Alfred D. Flowers Announces candidacy for Mayor of Minneapolis Pledges to Bring Community & Business Experience, Sound Judgment, and Truth to the People Know-How to Office

Al Flowers is running for Minneapolis mayor.

Minneapolis, Minn.  – Thursday, December 22, 2016 – Alfred D. Flowers, community activist and conversationalist declared his candidacy for Mayor of Minneapolis today. Mr. Flowers made this decision after carefully examining the current landscape of Minneapolis with the announcements by high-profile candidates like current state representative Raymond Dehn and Dr. Nekima Levy-Pounds.

“I am pleased and honored to announce my candidacy for Mayor of the City of Minneapolis. During last campaign, I gained an understanding of the complexities of city government including its capabilities and limitations.

“In my candidacy, I see helpful and positive roles for the mayoralty.

“Most importantly, the primary role for the mayor should be to be an advocate for the people of the city.  There are many issues that will come before us in the next years. They include transportation issues employment, business development, education, economic development and transit service.  In addition, we need to strengthen our community foundations to bring more jobs to Minneapolis.

“Second, the mayor should be a vital and active communications link between the people and the city. In my role as a long-time community activist, I’m constantly in touch with both citizens and business owners.  I understand their needs and desires.

“Third, as mayor, I can be a valued partner with the city manager, by taking advantage of my experience, skills and perspectives, gained from my years of being self-employed and community activism.

“Fourth, because of this experience, I have “people skills” that can be used to bring people together toward common goals and unity.

“The issues before us continue to be balancing fiscal responsibility with sound judgment.  One example is the problem of the Minneapolis city council wanting to open a city owned bank; shouldn’t we worry about the current uninformed city council members and mayor and have them to work on items the people are interested in?  It is clear that this kind of thing happens because of the city’s unwillingness to make cognitive improvement over the years.

“I believe that the foundation of any thriving community should include education, the arts, shopping and recreation.  If we want to attract strong companies to the area with better jobs, we must work to enhance and expand these categories.

“I look forward to a positive campaign, meeting citizens, and tackling challenges.”

For more information on Mr. Flowers, please visit www.TruthToThePeople.com


Black Americans may be more resilient to stress than white Americans

By Matt Johnson – TheSystemsScientist @TSSNewsMag, Guest Columnist 

White Americans live on average 3.6 years longer than black Americans. If you look only at men, the difference becomes 4.4 years.

As I found in a recent study, the main reason behind this disparity is that black Americans are at higher risk of most chronic medical conditions, such as hypertension, obesity, heart disease, stroke and cancer than other racial and ethnic groups.

However, research suggests minority groups in the U.S. tend to be better off in terms of mental health than white Americans. Depression, anxiety and suicide, for instance, are more common among white Americans than black Americans.

Research, including work I have done with my colleagues at the University of Michigan, demonstrates that although white Americans are, on average, the “healthiest group,” they are also, on average, far less “resilient” than black Americans. It seems that vulnerability is a cost of privilege, and resilience comes as a result of adversity.

What do we mean by resilience?

We call a group “resilient” when it is healthy, given the level of exposures to a wide range of psychosocial risk factors. For instance, psychosocial adversities such as lower educational attainment are associated with increased mortality in general. But the effect is lower in some groups than others, so we would describe the groups where the effect is lower as more resilient.

White Americans seem to be more vulnerable to certain psychosocial risk factors for a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes compared to minority groups. In other words, they are less resilient – less able to successfully adapt to life tasks in the face of highly adverse conditions.

Across several studies using nationally representative samples of Americans, my colleagues and I have consistently found that white Americans are more vulnerable to the effects of risk factors such as low education, anger, depression, feeling of control over own’s life and other psychosocial factors on mortality.

Read the full story here.

The MN DFL will endorse Dr. Nekima Levy-Pounds for Minneapolis Mayor

Bye-bye Minneapolis mayor Betsy “Equity?” Hodges.

Current (and outgoing) Minneapolis mayor Betsy Hodges thought she had a connection with the people of Minneapolis. With the banning of plastic bags at convenience stores and other non-issue items made into law by Hodges and the current city council, we know there will be a change to extraordinary people to reset the city of Minneapolis politics; of course the placeholder mayor served her purpose.

By Don Allen, Publisher – Our Black News

In 2013, the Minnesota DFL African American Caucus, in fear of who would give them the best deal made an unprecedented move by endorsing two candidates; Jackie Cherryhomes and then city councilwoman Betsy Hodges for Minneapolis mayor in 2013 (Story here).

Both Cherryhomes and Hodges have connections to the black community and of course, would not have to do much in the black community to get elected. Many business-minded community members felt good about Cherryhomes because of her business background including her connections to the rebuilding of West Broadway and past successes in gaining funding to assist the black community in capacity building – like making sure the Minneapolis Urban League building project was completed. Cherryhomes has the right stuff.

Hodges, a silent partner on the Minneapolis City Council sat silent when the October 2010 “State of Minority- and Women-Owned Business Enterprise: Evidence from Minneapolis prepared for the City of Minneapolis. The report was issued in collaboration with NERA for a cost of over $500,000.00. The report that multiple times the city’s small business program was ruined and broken and cited racial discrimination as a factor in obstructing local minority owned businesses to do business with the city was ignored by Hodges and her cold hard city council seat:

The City’s SUBP is based upon a 1995 disparity study. The consultants concluded there was a “strong basis in   evidence” of discrimination for African American-, Asian-, Hispanic-, and women-owned firms. Adopted in 1999, the SUBP sets project goals for MBE and WBE participation, and bidders must meet those goals or demonstrate their good faith efforts to do so. Certification of a firm’s Program eligibility is performed by CERT, a consortium of local agencies. Minneapolis does not conduct its own outreach or assistance component for emerging businesses. It works with the other local agencies through CERT to provide information to M/WBEs on opportunities on City projects (NERA, 2010, p. 12).

Hodges, the victor in the 2013 race for mayor held post-elections community meetings on topics like fairness, education, employment and equity…the problem was Hodges was providing lip-service as she slowly came to figure out she is only a placeholder…until the DFL finds some new and better.

Enter Dr. Levy-Pounds, agent provocateur, law professor, former NAACP president and someone who will get her way in 2017, including being elected as the mayor of Minneapolis. You see folks, the plan is already complete. Sharon Sayles-Belton, R.T. Rybak, Hodges, were all a part of a master plan to keep the Minneapolis mayor’s office as liberal as possible. Unfortunately for the right-leaning folks, the Republican Party of Minnesota has missed several opportunities to pony-up on social justice only to fall back on its arrogance and candidate in training for a future of #neverwins.

Levy-Pounds will have no issue walking right into office. Congratulations, and well-played.

Santa Claus is Black; like Jesus!

black_santaBy Don Allen, Publisher

Minnesota Funnies…I hope you folks haven’t been living under a rock all your lives, like Jesus, Santa Claus is full fledged black man. How to you account for the reindeer names?  Dasher, Dancer, Prancer, Vixen, Comet, Cupid, Donner, Blixen and Blitzen, with Rudolph; I’m sorry, they’re all brothers (black people’s names).

There have been numerous reports that some members of Minnesota’s mainstream community to include some self-hate minorities do not want their children sitting on the lap of a Black Santa at the Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota –  a suburb of the Twin Cities.

This is the funniest news ever – in a society that says their colored-blind, having a White Christmas seems to be the only priority.

A Postmodern approach to parenthetical Blackness

In a society where the mainstream media is misinformed about black progress denotes a change in thinking.

In a society where the mainstream is misinformed about black progress denotes a change in thinking.

If we look at Postmodernism, we also need to consider Reconstructivism, which is a philosophical theory holding that societies should continually reform themselves in order to establish more perfect governments or social networks. This ideology involves recombining or recontextualizing the ideas arrived at by the philosophy of deconstruction, in which an existing system or medium is broken into its smallest meaningful elements and in which these elements are used to build a new system or medium free from the strictures of the original.

By Don Allen, M.A. Ed – Publisher Our Black News

Postmodernism is Postmodern theory is a broad and somewhat ambiguous belief system tied to the philosophical and cultural reaction to the convictions of Modernism (sometimes equated with Humanism). Postmodernism is the philosophical proposal that reality is ultimately inaccessible by human investigation, that knowledge is a social construction, that truth-claims are political power plays, and that the meaning of words is to be determined by readers not authors. In brief, Postmodern theory sees reality as what individuals or social groups make it to be (All About World View, 2016).

In a parenthetical black society, one might argue there are those who have not shaken off the preverbal slave dust and only exist to be consequential. While most black people, especially in the United States, knows there are pockets of black communities ruled by self-appointed, consequential Negroes that too are the poorest in American black society, which is chained to the evolution and outsourcing of Jim Crow tactics so that black communities remain untouched by wealth, commerce, employment and education. But why would are own people do this to us?

The protagonist in this situation is a broken black man. The name “Black Man” inserts a certain masculinity, unfortunately the for some, they cannot live up to the physical or emotional expectations of the community or anyone else. Big Daddy (political parties) provides a lens for community members to see a possible example of compassion when they tell the black community it has no reason to be ashamed of being dependent on welfare.  Of course we find out later that Big Daddy has plans and a past and leaves “a lot unspoken.”. The black community, in some cases black men in the United States are like alcoholics; a man living a faux life with a bottle when he rather be with someone else. The cross-cultural and longitudinal perspectives of black male identity between the mainstream and the media, who chastised black men when they the only newsworthy community piece is a black on black killing. This was shadowed in an enigma from mainstream acceptance. The political and social limitations of the black community infrastructure is obscured to say the least –  for only a few who could see into the blind spots.

Looking through the lens of postmodernism as it pertains to color, race, class and more specifically, the African American, it becomes even more problematic to define the modern, postmodern and post-post modernism. Not because we cannot comprehend the meanings, but so few black intellectuals have been indoctrinated with postmodernism in a way that would lay bare to a very clear definition, claims or arguments.

In bell hooks’ “Postmodern Debates: Postmodern Blackness,” she is determined to cut relevance into her view of postmodernism at the sake of not stepping out and defining an apparatus of her own that can be used by black authors and society to make meaning for a ‘modern, post or post-post’ in ‘blackness.’  hooks writes, “I was told by another black person that I was wasting my time, that ‘this stuff does not relate in any why to what’s happening with black people.” (128).

I tend to agree with the other black person on the critique of hooks amazement and have been unsettled by the lack of black literary agents who have not looked to solidify a meaning exclusively to black culture. If hooks and others would look at the examples of modernism to include the post and post-post in black culture, there is an extensive prospect to break the mold set by the white-patriarchal construct as it pertains to having exclusivity in the hierarchy of community, identity and literary devises –  to say the least.

As a black writer, given the examples above, we could argue for a new name, or critical apparatus such as Current Relevatism. The meaning of Current Relevatism is that during our arts, society and literary history (black America), there were moments in the depths that are timely and relevant in our canons that lay bare to likening of Marxism, capitalism, modernism, postmodernism and postmodernity that can only be defined by the current state relevant to the black literary cultures purchase. Hence, while hooks understood what could be labeled as modern, she negates the opportunity to insert a new critical apparatus like Current Relevatism to account for the white-patriarchal construct and what it has used to create meaning and identity for black bodies, literature and culture for far too long. “During the sixties, black power movement was influenced by perspectives that could easily be labeled modernist,” (129).

If black intellectuals cannot idea, create and distribute new meaning in the areas of community, critical apparatus and redefine “us” to define and review for debate, we have not gotten any further as intellectuals then the common household cat. Black Postmodernism and the definitions, which have never been cleared or applied, might just be unnecessary.

Works Cited

Malpas, S. (2001). Postmodern blackness. Bell Hooks. Postmodern debates. New York: Palgrave, 2001. 128-135. Print.

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